Young Adults With Type 1 Diabetes Preparing to Transition to Adult Care: Psychosocial Functioning and Associations With Self-Management and Health Outcomes

Use of Ecological Momentary Assessment to Measure Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Adherence in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes

AbstractBACKGROUND | Young adulthood is a vulnerable developmental period associated with increased risk for suboptimal health outcomes in youth with type 1 diabetes. Psychosocial factors have been associated with self-management and glycemic control in younger populations, but the extent to which these associations exist among young adults is poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the psychosocial functioning of young adults with type 1 diabetes and associated clinical outcomes.METHODS | Participants included young adults (n = 44) between the ages of 18 and 23 years in a pediatric setting who were preparing to transition to adult care. All participants completed self-report measures of psychosocial functioning at baseline as part of this longitudinal observational study. Outcome data included glycemic control, frequency of blood glucose monitoring, and self-management ratings at baseline and 1-year follow-up.RESULTS | Young adults with type 1 diabetes reported higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower self-efficacy, and more risk behaviors compared with previously published scores for adolescents. Young adults also reported greater resilience and transition readiness than their younger counterparts. Psychosocial variables were differentially related to glycemic control and frequency of blood glucose monitoring both cross-sectionally and longitudinally.CONCLUSION | This study provides key information about the psychosocial functioning of young adults with type 1 diabetes. It identifies relevant psychosocial factors that are associated with meaningful health outcomes during the transition preparation period. These findings may inform the development of clinical programs aimed at promoting transition preparation and health outcomes in young adults with type 1 diabetes.© 2020 by the American Diabetes Association

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