Development and Validation of the McGill Empowerment Assessment–Diabetes (MEA-D)

Driving Safety in Adolescents and Young Adults With Type 1 Diabetes

AbstractBACKGROUND Diabetes is a prevalent chronic condition that poses a major burden for patients and the health care system. Evidence suggests that patient engagement in self-care improves diabetes control and reduces the risk of complications. To provide effective interventions that aim to improve empowerment processes relating to diabetes, a comprehensive and valid measure of empowerment is needed. This article details the development and validation of the McGill Empowerment Assessment–Diabetes (MEA-D).METHODS The development and validation of the MEA-D questionnaire comprised three steps: item generation, qualitative face validation, and factorial content validation. An initial version was created by combining existing items and inductively generated items. Items were mapped to an empowerment framework with four domains: attitude, knowledge, behavior, and relatedness. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 adults living with diabetes to assess face validity. The questionnaire was revised by a team of clinicians, researchers, and patient-partners. Factorial content validation was then performed using responses from 300 adult Canadians living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes.RESULTS The final version of the MEA-D contained 28 items. A moderately good item-domain correlation was found between the individual items within the four domains. Cronbach’s α was 0.81 (95% CI 0.78–0.85) for attitude, 0.73 (95% CI 0.67–0.79) for knowledge, 0.84 (95% CI 0.81–0.87) for behavior, and 0.81 (95% CI 0.77–0.84) for relatedness.CONCLUSION The evaluation of diabetes programs demands a validated measure of empowerment. We developed the MEA-D to address this need. The MEA-D may be adapted to measure patients’ empowerment regarding other chronic health conditions.© 2020 by the American Diabetes Association

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