Comparison of Protocols to Reduce Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Prescribed a Sodium–Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor

Comparison of Protocols to Reduce Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Prescribed a Sodium–Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor

AbstractOBJECTIVE | Sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are approved for type 1 diabetes in Europe and Japan, with off-label use in type 1 diabetes in the United States. Although there were no consistent approaches to risk mitigation in clinical trials of these agents, protocols have been developed to try to reduce the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). However, a validated risk mitigation strategy does not exist. We reviewed available DKA risk mitigation protocols to better understand the various strategies currently in use.METHODS | We conducted a search of the published medical literature and other medical information sources, including conference presentations, for protocols. We then categorized the information provided into guidance on patient selection, initiation of SGLT2 inhibitors, ketone monitoring, necessary patient action in the event of ketosis or DKA, and inpatient treatment of ketosis or DKA.RESULTS | Patient selection is generally similar among the protocols, although some require a minimum BMI and insulin dose. All protocols advocate routine measurement of ketones, although some insist on blood ketone tests. Although action steps for ketosis varies, all protocols advocate rapid patient intervention. The importance of evaluating ketones and acid-base balance even in the absence of hyperglycemia is emphasized by all protocols, as is the need to continue administering insulin until ketosis has resolved.CONCLUSION | DKA risk mitigation must be pursued systematically in individuals with type 1 diabetes, although the best strategy remains to be determined. Given the ongoing need for adjunctive therapies in type 1 diabetes and current use of SGLT2 inhibitors for this purpose, additional education and research are crucial, especially in the hospital environment, where DKA may not be diagnosed promptly and treated appropriately.© 2020 by the American Diabetes Association

Via Source link