Attitudes Towards COVID-19 Vaccination Among Black Women And Men

Attitudes Towards COVID-19 Vaccination Among Black Women And Men

The KFF COVID-19 Vaccine Monitor is an ongoing research project tracking the public’s attitudes and experiences with COVID-19 vaccinations. Using a combination of surveys and qualitative research, this project tracks the dynamic nature of public opinion as vaccine development and distribution unfold, including vaccine confidence and hesitancy, trusted messengers and messages, as well as the public’s experiences with vaccination.
Introduction
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a disproportionate impact on people of color, and previous KFF analysis of federal, state and local data has found that people of color, particularly Black people, are experiencing a disproportionate burden of COVID-19 cases and deaths. This burden is reflected in survey data, as large shares of Black adults (72%) say they are worried that they or someone in their family will get sick from the coronavirus. As the vaccination efforts roll out, a recent KFF analysis shows that across states reporting vaccination data by race and ethnicity, patterns emerge with Black and Hispanic people receiving smaller shares of vaccinations compared to their share of COVID-19 cases and share among the total population. These disparities likely reflect a variety of factors, including availability of information about how and when to get the vaccines as well as the ability to navigate sign-up processes and access vaccine clinics. Individuals’ willingness to get the vaccine and their concerns and questions about the vaccine may also be a factor. As such, understanding attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination within these communities is one step towards addressing these disparities. Despite Black adults being among the groups most impacted by the pandemic, the KFF COVID-19 Vaccine Monitor finds that many want to wait and see how the vaccine will work for others before getting vaccinated against COVID-19 themselves when it becomes available to them for free, and one in seven say they will definitely not get vaccinated.
This new analysis examines Black adults’ responses by gender and finds that, while Black men and women are similar in many of their views, there is a gender gap in some COVID-19 vaccine attitudes and intentions.

Key Takeaways:

Compared to other groups, a larger share of Black women (41%) and Black men (45%) say they want to “wait and see” how the vaccine is working for others before getting vaccinated themselves. Providing accurate information about side effects may be key to communicating with these groups, since large shares of Black women and men say they do not have enough information about the vaccine’s side effects and are worried they might experience serious side effects themselves.
As is true for the public overall, messages that emphasize the vaccine’s effectiveness, protection from illness, and the ability to return to normal life are the most effective with both Black women and Black men, and health care providers are the source they are most likely to turn to when making decisions.
About one in five (19%) Black women say they “definitely will not” get vaccinated for COVID-19, larger than the share of Black men (7%) who say the same. This greater reluctance among Black women may be related to the fact that Black women are more likely than Black men to say they are concerned about experiencing serious side effects (87% vs. 61%) or getting COVID-19 from the vaccine (68% vs. 38%). It may also be related to concerns about how the vaccine is being distributed, as about six in ten Black women do not believe the vaccine distribution is taking the needs of Black people into account and most have low levels of trust in the health care system to do what is right for their community.
Because women often play the role of health care decision-makers for their families, it may be particularly important to reach Black women with messages that emphasize the safety of the vaccine and address concerns about side effects. These messages could also convey accurate information about how the vaccine works to combat the misperception that it is possible to get COVID-19 from the vaccine. In addition, building trust by addressing historic mistreatment and inequities in the vaccine distribution process may play a part in helping alleviate vaccine hesitancy among Black women and men.

Vaccine Hesitancy And Enthusiasm Among Black Women And Men
About one-third of Black women and four in ten Black men say they have already gotten at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine or want to get vaccinated “as soon as they can,” while about four in ten Black women and men (41% and 45%, respectively) say they want to “wait and see” how the vaccine is working for others before getting vaccinated themselves. However, a much larger share of Black women (19%) compared to 7% of Black men say they “definitely will not” get the COVID-19 vaccine when it is available to them for free, suggesting greater reluctance to obtain the COVID-19 vaccination among Black women.

Attitudes And Experiences Related To COVID-19 Vaccine Enthusiasm Among Black Women and Men
Several factors may influence people’s intentions and enthusiasm for getting a COVID-19 vaccine, including their level of worry about getting sick, historic experiences with health care institutions, and their views on the current vaccine distribution effort.
Reflecting historical mistreatment of people of color and ongoing racism and discrimination in the health care system, about half of Black women and men (53% and 45%, respectively), say that they trust the health care system to do what is right for them and their community “only some” or “almost none” of the time. This is consistent with a KFF/The Undefeated Survey conducted in summer 2020 that found that Black adults were less likely to trust doctors and hospitals, and that one in five Black adults, rising to one quarter of Black women and almost four in ten Black mothers, said they had personally experienced race-based discrimination while receiving health care in the past year.
When asked how they feel about the current status of COVID-19 vaccination in the U.S., a majority of Black women and men say they feel “optimistic” (65% and 66%, respectively), though six in ten Black women also report feeling “frustrated” (60%) compared to about half of Black men (48%). Further, about six in ten Black women (57%) and almost half of Black men (47%) say they are not confident that the distribution of COVID-19 vaccines in the U.S. is taking the needs of Black people into account.

Concerns About Getting A COVID-19 Vaccine Among Black Women And Men
The Monitor also reveals a gender difference among Black adults in the level of concern about certain aspects of the COVID-19 vaccine. Asked about a variety of things they might be concerned about, nine in ten Black women say they are concerned that “the long-term effects of the COVID-19 vaccines are unknown”, including six in ten who are “very” concerned. Large majorities of Black women not yet vaccinated are also concerned that they might experience serious side effects from the vaccine (87%), that the vaccines are not as safe (80%) or not as effective (75%) as they are said to be, or that they might get COVID-19 from the vaccine (68%). While large shares of Black men share these concerns, Black women are significantly more likely than Black men to say they are concerned they might experience serious side effects (87% vs. 61%) or that they might get COVID-19 from the vaccine (68% vs. 38%), indicating that there may be a greater need for messaging and information to address these concerns among Black women in particular.

In Their Own Words: What is the biggest concern you had/have, if any, about getting a COVID-19 vaccine?
The KFF COVID-19 Vaccine Monitor conducted interviews with a nationally representative sample of 1,009 adults, using open-ended questions to better understand public concerns around receiving a COVID-19 vaccine as well as to hear from the public in their own words about the messages and messengers that could increase the likelihood of people getting a COVID-19 vaccine.
“I have had 5 family members die from COVID-19. I don’t want to be next. The vaccine is very important to me because of all my underlying conditions that make me more susceptible to the disease and virus.” -Black man, age 50-64, Ohio
“I’m afraid that the vaccine might cause a divide between people who can get it and those who are unable due to whatever reason.” -Black man, age 18-29, New York
“This country is not to be trusted when rolling out anything in such a short time. The fallout will be massive.” -Black woman, age 30-49, Maryland
“Will it agree with my body for me not to have serious complications or even physical deformation?” -Black woman, age 30-49, California

Information Gaps

The concerns that Black women and men have may be alleviated by more information and discussions, as majorities say that they do not have enough information about many of the aspects of the COVID-19. While some of these gaps in information mirror their concerns regarding side effects and effectiveness, there is also a need for more information about the logistics (when and where) to get the vaccine.
Majorities of Black women and men who have not been vaccinated say they do not have enough information about the potential side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine (69% and 65%), where they will be able to get a COVID-19 vaccine (65% and 58%), the effectiveness of the vaccine (63% and 59%), when people like them will be able to get vaccinated (62% and 70%) and how their state is deciding priority groups (57% and 50%).

In Their Own Words: If there is one message or piece of information you could hear that would make you more likely to get vaccinated for COVID-19, what would it be?
“I would like to hear that the people that took the vaccine are fine and do not have any reaction to the vaccine.” -Black woman, age 18-29, Ohio
“Less chance of an allergic reaction and effectiveness for people of color.” -Black woman, age 50-64, Kentucky
“I am going to get the vaccine, I just will not be anywhere near the front of the line!” -Black man, age 50-64, Michigan
“More data about side-effects in pregnant women and those who are looking to become pregnant.” -Black woman, age 30-49, South Carolina
“That is has been tested multiple times on a variety of people before it was approved by the FDA.” -Black woman, age 50-64, Arkansas
“[More information on] the failure rate and the testing process.” -Black man, age 18-29, New York

Messages: Convincing And Deterrents

When it comes to specific messages that may make people more likely to get vaccinated, Black women and men react similarly as the public overall to many messages such as the ability to return to normal life (58% Black women, 63% Black men), protection from illness (56% vs. 68%) and the vaccine’s effectiveness (55% vs. 62%).

Percent who say that hearing each of the following would make them more likely to get vaccinated:
Total adults
Total Black adults
Black women
Black men

The vaccines have been shown to be highly effective in preventing illness from COVID-19
57%
58%
55%
62%

The vaccine will help protect you from getting sick from COVID-19
56
61
56
68

The quickest way for life to return to normal is for most people to get vaccinated
54
61
58
63

Millions of people have already safely been vaccinated for COVID-19
46
50
46
54

We need people to get vaccinated to get the U.S. economy back on track
45
51
49
54

A doctor or health care provider you trust has gotten the vaccine
38
43
43
43

There is no cost to get the vaccine
36
33
33
34

A close friend or family member got vaccinated for COVID-19
32
35
37
34

NOTE: Asked among those who say they have not been vaccinated against COVID-19.

Despite the positive reported reaction to pro-vaccination messages and information, a number of negative vaccine messages and information may make Black women and men less likely to receive the vaccine. Reflecting their heightened level of concern about vaccine side effects, about half of Black women and men who have not yet been vaccinated say that hearing that “a small number of people have experienced a serious allergic reaction” or that “some people were experiencing short-time side effects like pain or fever” from the vaccine would make them less likely to get vaccinated. Three in ten Black women also say that they would be deterred after hearing that masks and social distancing will still be required after getting vaccinated (28%), or that two vaccine doses several weeks apart are required (30%).

Percent who say that hearing each of the following would make them less likely to get vaccinated:
Total adults
Total Black adults
Black women
Black men

A small number of people have experienced a serious allergic reaction to the COVID-19 vaccine
39%
49%
50%
48%

Some people were experiencing short-term side effects like pain or fever from the COVID-19 vaccine
33
46
46
47

You will need to continue to wear a mask and practice social distancing even after getting vaccinated
20
26
28
24

You had to receive two doses of the vaccine several weeks apart
18
26
30
22

NOTE: Asked among those who say they have not been vaccinated against COVID-19.

Messengers
As previously reported, 84% of Black adults who have not yet been vaccinated say they would be likely to turn to a doctor, nurse, or other health care provider for information when deciding whether to get a vaccination. At least six in ten say they would be likely to turn to other sources such as the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (71%), their state or local health department (71%), a pharmacist (65%), or family or friends (61%). One-third of Black adults say they would turn to a religious leader for information (33%). Similar shares of Black women and men say they would be likely to turn to each of these sources of information regarding the COVID-19 vaccine.

Percent who say that, when deciding whether to get a COVID-19 vaccine, they are very or somewhat likely to turn to each of the following for information:
Total adults
Total Black adults
Black women
Black men

A doctor, nurse, or other health care provider
79%
84%
87%
80%

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
60
71
71
70

Family or friends
58
61
64
57

Their state or local public health department
57
71
70
71

A pharmacist
54
65
66
64

A religious leader such as minister, pastor, priest, or rabbi
17
33
36
30

NOTE: Asked among those who say they have not been vaccinated against COVID-19.

Via Source link